2019-08-10 10:39:48 0
A chip refers to a silicon chip containing an integrated circuit, which is small in size and is often part of a computer or other electronic equipment. A chipset is a series of interrelated chip combinations. They are interdependent and can play more roles when combined. For example, the central processing unit (CPU) in the computer, the radio frequency in the mobile phone, the baseband and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the communication base station, etc., are composed of multiple chips. Larger integrated circuits grouped together. The integrated circuit is a very precise instrument, and its unit is nanometers. One nanometer is one hundred thousandth of a millimeter. This requires very strict and high standards for design and manufacturing processes.
An expert in the field of chip manufacturing once revealed that the manufacturing process of a chip is very complicated. A production line involves more than 50 industries and 2000-5000 processes. Take the foundry as an example, it is necessary to first purify the "sand" into silicon, then cut it into wafers, and then process the wafers. The wafer processing plant contains two processes, the former process is divided into several major modules-photolithography, thin film, etching, cleaning, injection; the latter process is mainly packaging-interconnection, wire bonding, sealing. Among them, lithography is the link between manufacturing and design.
Chips are known as modern "industrial food". There are many types of chips and a wide range of fields. There are dozens of chips involved in a single smart phone. In addition to the core main chip, the camera, voice processing, and power supply system Chips are needed for all of them.
Statistics from the China Semiconductor Industry Association show that the domestic self-sufficiency rate of China's integrated circuit products in 2017 was only 38.7%. In 2017, China's integrated circuit imports reached 377 billion pieces, an increase of 10.1% year-on-year; imports amounted to US$260.1 billion (approximately 1,7561 billion yuan), making it China's largest imported goods, an increase of 14.6% year-on-year. In 2017, China's imports of goods were 12.46 trillion yuan, which means that integrated circuit imports accounted for 14.1% of China's total imports, while China's total crude oil imports during the same period were only about 150 billion U.S. dollars. China’s spending on imports of semiconductor chips has nearly doubled that of crude oil. According to data from the General Administration of Customs, chip imports have exceeded crude oil for three consecutive years since 2015, and the difference between the two imports is more than 95 billion U.S. dollars each year.
According to the report of the Foresight Research Institute, at present, global chips are still dominated by products from companies in the United States, Japan, and Europe, and the high-end market is almost monopolized by these three main regions. Since January 1993, Intel has been the world's largest chip manufacturer. Intel accounts for 80% of the CPU processors used in personal computers. In mobile phone chips, Qualcomm is another giant. Except for mobile phone manufacturers such as Huawei and Samsung, all other Android mobile phone manufacturers use Qualcomm processors.
According to the statistics of China Semiconductor Industry Association, the sales of China's integrated circuit industry reached 541.13 billion yuan in 2017, a year-on-year increase of 24.8%. Among them, the integrated circuit manufacturing industry has the fastest growth rate, with a year-on-year growth of 28.5% in 2017 and sales of 144.81 billion yuan. The design industry and the packaging and testing industry continued to maintain rapid growth, with growth rates of 26.1% and 20.8% respectively, and sales of 207.35 billion yuan and 188.97 billion yuan respectively.
According to data from the General Administration of Customs, China exported 204.35 billion integrated circuits in 2017, a year-on-year increase of 13.1%; the export value was US$66.88 billion, a year-on-year increase of 9.8%.
In China, my country’s semiconductor industry has also accelerated its development in recent years.
According to the latest ranking report of the top ten domestic integrated circuit design/manufacturing industries in 2017 published by the Semiconductor Association and the China Electronics and Information Industry Development Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, among the top ten domestic integrated circuit design companies, Huawei HiSilicon ranked 361 100 million yuan in sales ranked first; Tsinghua Unigroup Zhanrui ranked second with 11 billion yuan; ZTE Microelectronics ranked third with 7.6 billion yuan. Followed by Huada Semiconductor, Zhixin Microelectronics, Goodix Technology, Silan Microelectronics, Duntai Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Geke Microelectronics and Vimicro Microelectronics.
Huawei HiSilicon Semiconductor Co., Ltd. was established in 2004, and its predecessor was the Huawei Integrated Circuit Design Center established in 1991. Currently, HiSilicon is headquartered in Shenzhen, with design branches in Beijing, Shanghai, Silicon Valley, and Sweden. Its products cover chips and solutions in wireless networks, fixed networks, digital media and other fields, and have been successfully applied in more than 100 countries and regions around the world; in the field of digital media, it has launched SoC network monitoring chips and solutions, video phone chips and Solutions, DVB chips and solutions, and IPTV chips and solutions. Huawei HiSilicon’s products are used in multiple business lines such as carrier business and consumer business, while ordinary consumers are more aware of it because of the Kirin processor on Huawei’s mobile phones. At present, Huawei’s many mobile phones include the Mate series and P Both series and Honor phones are equipped. Kirin 960 was also rated as the "Best Android Processor in 2016" by foreign media, outperforming Qualcomm processors.
Ziguang Zhanrui was developed by Ziguang Group in response to the country’s integrated circuit development strategy through capital operation and corporate layout. In December 2013, Tsinghua Unigroup acquired Spreadtrum Communications, a communications baseband chip design company listed on NASDAQ in the United States and ranked third in the world. In July 2014, the company completed the pairing with Nasdaq. The merger and acquisition of RDA Microelectronics, a listed company and the second domestic communication chip design company. In 2016, Tsinghua Unigroup held Shanghai Hongmao Microelectronics Co., Ltd., and deployed integrated circuit packaging and testing. At the same time, in 2016, Unigroup held Wuhan Yangtze River Storage Co., Ltd., and successively signed contracts to establish storage chip and memory manufacturing plants with a total investment of nearly US$100 billion in Chengdu and Nanjing.
According to its official website, in 2015, Ziguang Zhanrui reached a cooperation with Intel to develop a system chip based on Intel’s x86 architecture and put it on the market. Currently, Ziguang Zhanrui has more than 5,000 employees, of which more than 90% are R&D personnel; it has 16 technology R&D centers around the world. Ziguang Zhanrui is committed to the research and development of domestically-made CPUs with independent controllable architecture.
The high-tech industry represented by the chip industry has strong development momentum. The data shows that the annual compound value-added rate of my country's integrated circuit industry from 2013 to 2017 is 21%, which is about 5 times the global growth rate during the same period. The scale has increased from 250.8 billion yuan in 2013 to 541.1 billion yuan in 2017, and the output has increased from 2013 The annual increase of 86.7 billion yuan to 156.5 billion yuan in 2017. Industrial investment has doubled, and the average annual investment in the past three years has exceeded 100 billion yuan. The supercomputer using our self-developed chip has won the first place in the last 4 world competitions.
my country's chip industry is accelerating its development. With the further expansion of the use of terahertz and driving the upstream and downstream industries of security and security inspection, a scale of 100 billion will be formed in the future, and enterprises in the industry chain will benefit.